Citation : citing the references
Why is Citing Sources Important?
- To give credit to ideas that are not your own
- To provide support for your argument
- To enable your reader to find and read the sources you used
- To avoid Honor Code infractions
What Needs to be Cited?
- Exact wording taken from any source, including freely available websites
- Paraphrases of passages
- Summaries of another person’s work
- Indebtedness to another person for an idea
- Use of another student’s work
- Use of your own previous work
You do not need to cite common knowledge.
What’s Involved in Citing Correctly?
In most citation styles, two parts are needed:
- An in-text citation
Whenever you refer to the work of another person, you must indicate within the text where you got the information. The in-text citation provides a brief reference and points your reader to the complete citation.
- A list of works used
The final page of your paper is usually a list of resources you cited or consulted.
Use the tabs above to learn about these two parts in your chosen citation style.
What Citation Style Should I Use?
Use the style recommended by your professor or choose one of the major styles below based on the discipline for your paper:
- ACS (American Chemical Society) for chemistry
- APA (American Psychological Association) for psychology and other social sciences
- Chicago (University of Chicago Press)
- notes and bibliography system for history, arts, and humanities
- author-date system for sciences and social sciences
- MLA (Modern Language Association) for literature, arts, and humanities
What is Common Knowledge?
Widely-known, generally-accepted information that is not attributable to one source.
- Jawaharlal Nehru is the first Prime Minister of India. (common knowledge, no citation needed)
- Jawaharlal Nehru became the president of Congress in 1929(not common knowledge, citation needed)
What is considered common knowledge can be tricky. When in doubt, ask your professor!